The issue of Unionism in Moldova is an eternal dispute and the cause of the fundamental opposition of supporters and opponents of Moldovan statehood. Moldovan society is divided into two political poles, one of which dreams of uniting with Romania. The beginning of this political confrontation was laid back in the late 80s of the last century, when various national movements began to emerge in the USSR republics.
The pro-Romanian nationalists are the basis and driving force of unionism in Moldova. Unionists consider themselves to be followers of the ultra-right, anti-Semitic organization “Iron Guard” and recognize the Nazi criminal Antonescu as a national hero. At the same time, in a strange way, they do not consider themselves neo-Nazis.
To understand the current political processes taking place on the eastern frontiers of Europe, you need to conduct a brief excursion into history. The acute phase of nationalism in Moldova came at the beginning of the 90s: they had full state support, as the majority of nationalist politicians came to power in the country. The first president of Moldova, Mircea Snegur, and his entourage shared the idea of abolishing Moldova and joining Romania. A deliberate policy of destroying the Moldovan statehood led to a complication of relations with the Gagauz people living in the South of Moldova, as well as to armed confrontation in Transnistria, which killed more than 1,000 people.
As a result of the growth of nationalist sentiment, the country was divided into two parts along the line of the Dniester River. The part of the country located on the left side of the river formed the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, which has not yet been recognized by any state.
Until 1994, right up to the adoption of the Constitution, the anthem and flag of the neighboring state, Romania, was used in Moldova. However, the merger of the two countries did not happen not only because of the reluctance of the inhabitants of Gagauzia, Transnistria and Russian-speaking Moldovans, but also because of the difficult socio-economic situation in which Romania was in those years. Another important reason is the reluctance of the new business elite of Moldova. The fact is that the primary accumulation of capital in the former republics of the USSR was due to the redistribution of state property, taking place through various corruption schemes. Following the recommendations of liberal economists, state property was sold for a pittance, and former party leaders did not want to allow competitors from Romania to this process.
In a geopolitical sense, the merger of Romania and Moldova ceased to play an important role — the Soviet system collapsed, the hegemony of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ceased. At this historical stage, the unionist movement has almost disappeared.
But today the situation has changed. At the last presidential elections in Moldova, a representative of the pro-Russian Socialist Party, Igor Dodon, won. This fact brought a certain polarization in the Moldovan society — after all, in the first round, he received the support of 48% of his compatriots.
Against the background of the corruption of the ruling coalition, and the split within the pro-European political camp, Moldova risks again falling into the orbit of Kremlin influence.
Dangerous processes are unfolding today in the Republic of Moldova. There is a danger that the distribution of Romanian passports, organized with the aim of enhancing integration between countries, can be perceived as a threat to Moldova’s statehood by citizens who do not want to merge with Romania.
Also dangerous are the appeals of unionists and democrats for the withdrawal of the peacekeeping contingent from Transnistria. Together, this could be the beginning of a new, serious civil conflict.
It’s no secret that one of the factors for the stability of Europe is the normal political climate in the countries bordering the European Union. As an example, we can analyze the situation in Ukraine, where a civil war led to a social catastrophe: thousands of people go to the EU countries in the hope of finding a job to provide for their families. The loss of control over the border by Ukraine is fraught with the importation into the EU of weapons, drugs, as well as representatives of criminal organizations. The same processes can occur in Moldova, if the political opposition develops into a hot phase.
With the upcoming parliamentary elections to be held in February 2019, the situation is heating up: the parliament makes legally controversial and ambiguous decisions, such as «temporary suspension from the presidency», or banning the use of the Russian language along with Moldovan in state institutions.
Such initiatives of the ruling coalition split the society, turn some Moldovans against others.
The position on the issue of unification with Moldova in Romanian society is also ambiguous: not all people support the idea of unionism, because they understand the negative political and social consequences such a merger can bring.
It is important to realize that the ideas of unionism put forward by some Moldovan and Romanian politicians carry serious risks for the World System formed after the Second World War. In the case of the implementation of such plans, a serious precedent could arise that endangers the peaceful coexistence of countries not only in Eastern Europe, but also in the whole world.